Aerva lanata

NAME: Aerva lanata

FAMILY: Amaranthaceae

COMMON NAME(s): Bhadram, Cherula, Mountain knotgrass

LOCAL NAMES: Eweowo, Aje, Efun-ile, Alhaji, Furfurata, Fatumi, Kapuri jadi

USEFUL PART(s): Whole plant

GENERAL USE(s):  

  • The whole plant is edible and serve as food for people
  • It is also edible for farm animals

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • India
  • Nigeria
  • Ghana
  • Uganda
  • Ethiopia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Australia

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Aerva lanata medicinal uses include:

  • Ulcers
  • Wounds
  • Snake bite
  • Diuretic
  • Purgative
  • Arthritis
  • Anthelmintic
  • Sore throat
  • Kidney and bladder stones
 Source:  commons.wikimedia.org  By Vinayaraj

Source: commons.wikimedia.org By Vinayaraj

FURTHER READINGS

Dinnimath, B. M., Jalalpure, S. S., & Patil, U. K. (2017). Antiurolithiatic activity of natural constituents isolated from Aerva lanata. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 8(4), 226–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2016.11.006

Gujjeti, R. P., & Mamidala, E. (2017). Anti-HIV Activity of Phytosterol Isolated from Aerva lanata Roots. Pharmacognosy Journal, 9, 112–116. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2017.1.19

Ikewuchi, J. C., Uwakwe, A. A., Onyeike, E. N., & Ikewuchi, C. C. (2011). Hepatoprotective effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. EXCLI Journal, 10, 280–289.

Kalirajan, A., Narayanan, K. R., Ranjitsingh, A. J. A., Ramalakshmi, C., & Parvathiraj, P. (2013). Bioprospecting medicinal plant Aerva lanata Juss. ex Schult. flowers for potential antimicrobial activity against clinical and fish-borne pathogens. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 4(3), 306–311.

Omotoso, K. S., Aigbe, F. R., Salako, O. A., Chijioke, M. C., & Adeyemi, O. O. (2017). Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous whole plant extract of Aerva lanata (l.) Juss. ex Schult (Amaranthaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 208, 174–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.032

Poonkuzhali, K., Rajeswari, V., Saravanakumar, T., Viswanathamurthi, P., Park, S. M., Govarthanan, M., … Palvannan, T. (2014). Reduction of hexavalent chromium using Aerva lanata L.: Elucidation of reduction mechanism and identification of active principles. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 272, 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.03.001

Raihan, O., Brishti, A., Bahar, E., Islam, F., Rahman, M., Tareq, S. M., & Hossain, M. A. (2012). Antioxidant and anticancer effect of methanolic extract of Aerva lanata Linn. against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) in vivo. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, 12(3), 219–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-012-0073-3

Rao, M. A., Palaksha, M. N., Sirisha, K. N., Bhargavi, V. L., & Manikandhar, P. (2014). Effect of Aerva lanata on cisplatin induced neurotoxicity in rats. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), 2431–2451. Retrieved from http://www.wjpps.com/current_issue.php%5Cnhttp://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=cagh&AN=20143096275%5Cnhttp://oxfordsfx.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/oxford?sid=OVID:caghdb&id=pmid:&id=doi:&issn=2278-4357&isbn=&volume=3&issue=2&spage=2

Shekhawat, M. S., Manokari, M., & Revathi, J. (2017). In vitro propagation and ex vitro rooting of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult.: a rare medicinal plant. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 22(1), 40–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-016-0248-x

Thanganadar Appapalam, S., & Panchamoorthy, R. (2017). Aerva lanata mediated phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity against wound associated bacteria. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 78, 539–551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.06.035

Vivek, D., Nair, N. G., Anju, M. P., Vatakkeel, B., Siju, E. N., & Aiswarya Lakshmi, A. G. (2015). In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Aerva lanata. International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research, 7(1), 57–59.

 

Adenium Obesum

 Source: Wikimedia

Source: Wikimedia

NAME: Adenium Obesum

FAMILY: Apoynaceae

COMMON NAME(s): Sabi star, Impala lily, Desert rose, Mock Azalea

LOCAL NAMES: Gariya

USEFUL PART(s):  Stem, roots, fruit, juice

GENERAL USE(s):  

  • The sap from the plant stem and root is used as arrow poison for hunting  and fish toxin
  • Ornamental purpose

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Senegal
  • Sudan
  • Mauritania
  • Ethiopia,
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Sri Lanka
  • Thailand

 WHY IS IT GREEN? 

 Adenium Obesum medicinal uses include:

  • Wound dressing
  • Ulcer
  • Cardiac tonic
  • Venereal diseases

OTHER IMPACT

The plant is toxic

FURTHER READINGS

Abalaka, S. E., Fatihu, M. Y., Ibrahim, N. D. G., & Ambali, S. F. (2015). Gills and skin histopathological evaluation in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 41(1), 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2015.01.005

Abalaka, S. E., Fatihu, M. Y., Ibrahim, N. D. G., & Ambali, S. F. (2015). Liver histopathological changes in Clarias gariepinus exposed to ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark. Journal of Morphological Sciences, 32(1), 22–28. https://doi.org/10.4322/jms.069314

AL-Ghudani, M. K. N., & Hossain, M. A. (2015). Determination of total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of root crude extracts of Adenium obesum traditionally used for the treatment of bone dislocations and rheumatism. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 5(S1), S155–S158. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(15)60879-9

Farah, M. A., Ali, M. A., Chen, S.-M., Li, Y., Al-Hemaid, F. M., Abou-Tarboush, F. M., … Lee, J. (2016). Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Adenium obesum leaf extract induced DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.01.027

Farah, M. A., Ali, M. A., Chen, S.-M., Li, Y., Al-Hemaid, F. M., Abou-Tarboush, F. M., … Lee, J. (2016). Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Adenium obesum leaf extract induced DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 141, 158–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.01.027

Farah, M. A., Ali, M. A., Chen, S. M., Li, Y., Al-Hemaid, F. M., Abou-Tarboush, F. M., … Lee, J. (2016). Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Adenium obesum leaf extract induced DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 141, 158–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.01.027

Hossain, M. A., Sohail Akhtar, M., Said, S., & Al-Abri, T. H. A. (2017). Two new flavonoids from Adenium obesum grown in Oman. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 29(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2016.04.004

Van der Walt, K., & Witkowski, E. T. F. (2017). Seed viability, germination and seedling emergence of the critically endangered stem succulent, Adenium swazicum, in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 109, 237–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2017.01.011

Versiani, M. A., Ahmed, S. K., Ikram, A., Ali, S. T., Yasmeen, K., & Faizi, S. (2014). Chemical constituents and biological activities of Adenium obesum (Forsk. ) Roem. et Schult. Chemistry and Biodiversity. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201200254

Yash, S., Anshita, N., & Susmita, S. (2015). Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Adenium obesum (Desert rose) leaf. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 6(3), P85–P92.

Adenia cissampeloides

 Source: West African Plants

Source: West African Plants

NAME: Adenia cissampeloides

FAMILY: Passifloraceae

COMMON NAME(s): Adenia

LOCAL NAMES: Arokeke, Godogbo, Akan-twi

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves, Stem-bark

GENERAL USE(s):  

  • The leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable
  • The sap from the tree is used as cosmetics
  • The stem can be use to make rope
  • Used as fish poison

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Senegal
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • Seychelles
  • Angola
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Mozambique

 
WHY IS IT GREEN?

Adenia cissampeloides medicinal uses include:

  • Hypertension
  • Nervous disorder
  • Stress
  • Cough
  • Gonorrhea
  • Antimicrobial
  • Oedema
  • Rheumatism
  • Pain relief
  • Fever
  • Malaria
  • Lactation stimulants

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental purpose

OTHER IMPACT

  • The plant is toxic
adenia_cissampeloides_ms_1469_47_268548.jpg

FURTHER READINGS

Ishola, I. O., Olayemi, S. O., Yemitan, O. K., & Akinseye, K. (2015). Role for monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of the hydroethanolic leaf extract from Adenia cissampeloides. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 26(3), 301–312. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2014-0015

Polito, L., Bortolotti, M., Pedrazzi, M., Mercatelli, D., Battelli, M. G., & Bolognesi, A. (2016). Apoptosis and necroptosis induced by stenodactylin in neuroblastoma cells can be completely prevented through caspase inhibition plus catalase or necrostatin-1. Phytomedicine, 23(1), 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2015.11.006

Saganuwan, S. A. (2014). EHMTI-0206. Nigerian plants that are used for treatment of headache and migraine. 4th European Headache and Migraine Trust International Congress, EHMTIC 2014 Copenhagen Denmark, 15(Suppl 1), G33. https://doi.org/10.1186/1129-2377-15-S1-G33

Sargiacomo, M., & Hughes, R. C. (1982). Interaction of ricin-sensitive and ricin-resistant cell lines with other carbohydrate-binding toxins. FEBS Letters, 141(1), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(82)80005-7

Sun, D. (2016). Traditional chinese medicine for treating iron deficiency anemia due to weakness of the spleen and the stomach and preparation method [Machine Translation]. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing.

Trevisi, P., Miller, B., Patel, D., Bolognesi, A., Bortolotti, M., & Bosi, P. (2017). Two different in vitro tests confirm the blocking activity of D-galactose lectins on the adhesion of Escherichia coli F4 to pig brush border receptors. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 16(1), 101–107. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2016.1260499

Vaglica, V., Sajeva, M., Noel McGough, H., Hutchison, D., Russo, C., Gordon, A. D., … Smith, M. J. (2017). Monitoring internet trade to inform species conservation actions. Endangered Species Research, 32(1), 223–235. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00803

Varadharajaperumal, P., Subramanian, B., & Santhanam, A. (2017). Biopolymer mediated nanoparticles synthesized from Adenia hondala for enhanced tamoxifen drug delivery in breast cancer cell line. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.1088/2043-6254/aa7253

 

Adansonia digitata

 Source:  Wikimedia.org

NAME: Adansonia digitata 

FAMILY: Bombacaceae

COMMON NAMES: Baobab, monkey-bread tree, upside-down tree, cream of tartar tree.

LOCAL NAMES: Ose, Igi-ose, kukaa, kulambali, Gorakh-imli

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves, fruit pulp, bark

GENERAL USE(s):  

  • The leaves are use as animal feed and pasture for ruminant animal.
  • Fruit pulp is edible and juice can be made from it.
  • It is a food plant in which the leaves and seeds can be cooked to make feeding better.
  • Fibres are gotten from the bark to make mats, fishing nets, sacks and cloths.
  • The wood is used for timber and fuel.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Namibia
  • Nigeria
  • Angola
  • Ghana
  • Cameroon
  • Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Sudan
  • Haiti
  • India
  • South Africa
 By Roger Culos - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

By Roger Culos - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Adansonia digitata medicinal uses include

  • Malaria
  • Asthma
  • Diarrhea
  • Kidney and bladder diseases
  • Demulcent
  • Prophylactic
  • Antihistaminic
  • Skin diseases
  • Caries
  • Antimicrobial

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • It improves the soil by shedding its leaves
  • It can be grown for shade and sheltering
  • Support biodiversity

OTHER IMPACT

  • The plant stores water
  • Ornamental purpose

FURTHER READINGS

Abdulkarim, S.M, Bamalli Z, G. M. . and K. R. (2014). Baobab Tree ( Adansonia digitata L ) Parts : Nutrition , Applications in Food and Uses in Ethno-medicine – A Review. Austin Publishing Group, 1(3), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1966.7602

Gebauer, J., Whitney, C. W., & Tabuti, J. R. S. (2016). First record of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in Uganda. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 63(5), 755–762. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-016-0387-y

Nwokocha, L. M., & Williams, P. A. (2016). Rheological properties of a polysaccharide isolated from Adansonia digitata leaves. Food Hydrocolloids, 58, 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.02.013

Rahul, J., Jain, M. K., Singh, S. P., Kamal, R. K., Anuradha, Naz, A., … Mrityunjay, S. K. (2015). Adansonia digitata L. (baobab): A review of traditional information and taxonomic description. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 5(1), 79–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30174-X

Sharma, B. K., Bhat, A. A., & Jain, A. K. (2015). Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) a threatened tree species of medicinal importance. Medicinal Plants. https://doi.org/10.5958/0975-6892.2015.00025.8

Tahia, F., Majumder, P., Sikder, M. A. A., & Rashid, M. A. (2015). Studies of bioactivities of adansonia digitata (L.). Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14(2), 157–162.

Tembo, D. T., Holmes, M. J., & Marshall, L. J. (2017). Effect of thermal treatment and storage on bioactive compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata) pulp from Malawi. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 58, 40–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.01.002

Woodborne, S., Hall, G., Robertson, I., Patrut, A., Rouault, M., Loader, N. J., & Hofmeyr, M. (2015). A 1000-year carbon isotope rainfall proxy record from South African baobab trees (Adansonia digitata L.). PLoS ONE, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124202

Achyranthes aspera

 Source: Wikimedia By Frank Vincentz

Source: Wikimedia By Frank Vincentz

NAME:  Achyranthes aspera

FAMILY: Amaranthaceae

COMMON NAMES: Devil's horsewhip, Rough-Chaff herb, chaff-flower

LOCAL NAMES: Aboro, Abora hakoorin-maciijii, Kutri, Nayurivi, Grootklits

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves, roots

GENERAL USE(s):  

  • Use as  fodder for some livestocks
  • The plant is useful in manuring and composting.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Afghanistan
  • India
  • Malaysia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Tunisia
  • Uganda
  • Mexico
  • Spain

 WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Achyranthes aspera medicinal uses include:

  • Stomach disorders         
  • Abortion
  • Diarrhea        
  • Dysentery
  • Skin diseases        
  • Malaria         
  • Venereal diseases        
  • Haemostatic         
  • Cold        
  • Kidney Disease

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT        

  • The plant helps in soil improvement        
  • It is also a host of pest       
  • Widespread weed especially in shaded pastures

OTHER IMPACT        

Some features of the plant are harmful to humans and animals

FURTHER READINGS

Asif, M., Jabeen, Q., Atif, M., Abdul Majid, A. M. S., & Qamar-Uz-Zaman, M. (2014). Diuretic activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn crude aqueous extract in albino rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 13(12), 2039–2045. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i12.14

Gawande, D. Y., Druzhilovsky, D., Gupta, R. C., Poroikov, V., & Goel, R. K. (2017). Anticonvulsant activity and acute neurotoxic profile of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 202, 97–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.03.018

Gnanaraj, W. E., Johnson, M., Mohanamathi, R. B., & Subramanian, K. M. (2012). In vitro clonal propagation of Achyranthes aspera L. and Achyranthes bidentata Blume using nodal explants. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60179-2

Khuda, F., Iqbal, Z., Khan, A., Zakiullah, Nasir, F., & Shah, Y. (2013). Anti-inflammatory activity of the topical preparation of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 26(3), 451–454.

Mukherjee, H., Ojha, D., Bag, P., Chandel, H. S., Bhattacharyya, S., Chatterjee, T. K., … Chattopadhyay, D. (2013). Anti-herpes virus activities of Achyranthes aspera: An Indian ethnomedicine, and its triterpene acid. Microbiological Research, 168(4), 238–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2012.11.002

Rafiqkhan, M., & Saranya. (2013). Pharmacognostic profile and phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Achyranthes aspera. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(3), 368–370.

Rama, P., Vignesh, A., Lakshmanan, G., & Murugesan, K. (2013). IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), 2250–49.

Sen, M. K., Nasrin, S., Rahman, S., & Jamal, A. H. M. (2014). In vitro callus induction and plantlet regeneration of Achyranthes aspera L., a high value medicinal plant. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(1), 40–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60206-9

Sharma, V., Chaudhary, U., Singh, R., & Agarwal, A. (2013). Achyranthes Aspera: Phytochemical Estimation. J. PharmTech Res. American Journal of PharmTech Research, 3(2).

Siripong, P., Duangporn, P., Takata, E., & Tsutsumi, Y. (2016). Phosphoric acid pretreatment of Achyranthes aspera and Sida acuta weed biomass to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresource Technology, 203, 303–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.12.037

Upadhya, V., Ankad, G. M., Pai, S. R., & Hegde, H. V. (2015). Comparative HPTLC analysis of stem and leaf of Achyranthes coynei with Achyranthes aspera. Plant Science Today, 2(1), 7–10. https://doi.org/10.14719/pst.2015.2.1.87

Achillea millefolium

NAME: Achillea millefolium

FAMILY:  Asteraceae

COMMON NAMES: Yarrow, nose-bleed, sneeze-wort, millefoil

LOCAL NAMES: Yaro, nosebleed, plant devil’s nettle, thousand-leaf, sanguinary

USEFUL PARTS: Flowers, leaves, seeds

GENERAL USES

  • It serves as feed for farm animals
  • Ornamental purpose
  • Leaves and flowers are used in making bitter drinks and strong drinks
  • The plant controls soil erosion

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • USA
  • Canada

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Achillea millefolium medicinal uses include:

  • Haemostatic
  • Wound
  • Astringent
  • Diaphoretic
  • Piles

FURTHER READINGS

Ayoobi, F., Shamsizadeh, A., Fatemi, I., Vakilian, A., Allahtavakoli, M., Hassanshahi, G., & Moghadam-Ahmadi, A. (2017). Bio-effectiveness of the main flavonoids of Achillea millefolium in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders- a review. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 20(6), 604–612. https://doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2017.8827

De Souza, P., Crestani, S., Da Silva, R. D. C. V., Gasparotto, F., Kassuya, C. A. L., Da Silva-Santos, J. E., & Gasparotto Junior, A. (2013). Involvement of bradykinin and prostaglandins in the diuretic effects of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 149(1), 157–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.015

Jenabi, E., & Fereidoony, B. (2015). Effect of Achillea Millefolium on Relief of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 28(5), 402–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2014.12.008

Kazemi, M. (2015). Chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory potential of Achillea millefolium L., Anethum graveolens L., and Carum copticum L. essential oils. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 5(4), 217–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2015.09.001

Kyslychenko, О. А. (2014). Flavonoids Determination in the Aboveground Part of Achillea Millefolium. Український Медичний Альманах., 17(3), 16–18.

Milutinović, M., Radovanović, N., orović, M., Šiler-Marinković, S., Rajilić-Stojanović, M., & Dimitrijević-Branković, S. (2015). Optimisation of microwave-assisted extraction parameters for antioxidants from waste Achillea millefolium dust. Industrial Crops and Products, 77, 333–341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.09.007

Shatnawi, M. A. (2012). Multiplication and cryopreservation of Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., Asteraceae). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 15(1), 163–173.

Veryser, L., Taevernier, L., Wynendaele, E., Verheust, Y., Dumoulin, A., & De Spiegeleer, B. (2017). N-alkylamide profiling of Achillea ptarmica and Achillea millefolium extracts by liquid and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 7(1), 34–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2016.09.005

Villanueva-Bermejo, D., Zahran, F., García-Risco, M. R., Reglero, G., & Fornari, T. (2017). Supercritical fluid extraction of Bulgarian Achillea millefolium. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 119, 283–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2016.10.005

 

 

Acanthus montanus

 Source: Wikimedia

Source:Wikimedia

NAME:  Acanthus montanus

FAMILY: Acanthacease

COMMON NAMES: Bear's breech, white's ginger, leopard's tongue

LOCAL NAMES: Ahon-ekun, irunmu-arugbo, inyinyiogwu, ogwudurunwashihshi

USEFUL PART(s):  Stem-twig, leaves, roots

 GENERAL USE(s):  

  • Ornamental purpose

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Benin
  • Ghana
  • Nigeria
  • Togo
  • Central African Republic
  • Cameroon
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon  

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Acanthus montanus medicinal uses include:

  • Syphilis       
  • Cough        
  • Emetic         
  • Urethral discharge         
  • Purgative        
  • Boils        
  • Aneamia        
  • Anthelmintics
 Source:  Wikimedia.org

FURTHER READINGS

Adamu, M., Oshadu, O. D., & Ogbaje, C. I. (2010). Anthelminthic efficacy of aqueous extract of Acanthus montanus leaf against strongylid nematodes of small ruminants. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 7(4), 279–285. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v7i4.56143

Adeyemi, O. O., Okpo, S. O., & Okpaka, O. (2004). The analgesic effect of the methanolic extract of Acanthus montanus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 90(1), 45–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.021

Adeyemi, O. O., Okpo, S. O., & Young-Nwafor, C. C. (1999). The relaxant activity of the methanolic extract of Acanthus montanus on intestinal smooth muscles. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 68(1–3), 169–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00084-7

Amin, E., Radwan, M. M., El-Hawary, S. S., Fathy, M. M., Mohammed, R., Becnel, J. J., & Khan, I. (2012). Potent insecticidal secondary metabolites from the medicinal plant Acanthus montanus. Records of Natural Products, 6(3), 301–305. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1273570

Anam, E. (1997). Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Acanthus montanus (Acanthaceae). INDIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY SECTION B-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY INCLUDING MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, 36(1), 110–113.

Asongalem, E. A., Foyet, H. S., Ekobo, S., Dimo, T., & Kamtchouing, P. (2004). Antiinflammatory, lack of central analgesia and antipyretic properties of Acanthus montanus (Ness) T. Anderson. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 95(1), 63–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.06.014

Igwe, O. U., & Nnaji, J. C. (2014). Chemical Characterization and Investigation of the Bio-effects of the Leaves of Acanthus montanus (Acanthaceae ) on Some Selected Microorganisms. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 6(14), 5554–5561.

Nana, P., Asongalem, E. A., Foyet, H. S., Folefoc, G. N., Dimo, T., & Kamtchouing, P. (2008). Maternal and developmental toxicity evaluation of Acanthus montanus leaves extract administered orally to Wistar pregnant rats during organogenesis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116(2), 228–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.11.021

Noiarsa, P., Ruchirawat, S., & Kanchanapoom, T. (2010). Acanmontanoside, a new phenylethanoid diglycoside from Acanthus montanus. Molecules, 15(12), 8967–8972. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15128967

Ukwe, C. V., & Ubaka, C. M. (2011). Hypoglycemic activity of leaves of Acanthus montanus T.Anderson (Acanthaceae) in rats. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 31(1), 32–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13410-010-0011-1

 

 

Adenia venenata

 Source:  Pinterest

Source: Pinterest

NAME: Adenia venenata

FAMILY: Passifloraceae

COMMON NAME(s): Akerbia  

LOCAL NAMES: Dodo, Yaga, Arokeke, oti, gantimi, bambuhi

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves, roots, stem-bark, fruits

GENERAL USE(s):  

  • Ornamental purpose

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Nigeria
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Tanzania
  • Somalia

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Adenia venenata medicinal uses include:

  • Cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Fever
  • Stem-pulp is an aphrodisiac
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Analgesic
  • Diuretic
  • Hypertension
 Source:  Pinterest

Source: Pinterest

FURTHER READINGS

Bagheri, G., Mirzaei, M., Mehrabi, R., & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2016). Cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of alstonia scholaris, alstonia venenata and moringa oleifera plants from India. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp-31129

Crouch, N. R., Smith, G. F., Figueiredo, E., & Styles, D. G. A. (2016). Rediscovery of Adenia natalensis W.J.De Wilde (Passifloraceae) After 150 Years. Haseltonia, 2016–Decem(22). https://doi.org/10.2985/026.022.0101

Polito, L., Bortolotti, M., Pedrazzi, M., Mercatelli, D., Battelli, M. G., & Bolognesi, A. (2016). Apoptosis and necroptosis induced by stenodactylin in neuroblastoma cells can be completely prevented through caspase inhibition plus catalase or necrostatin-1. Phytomedicine, 23(1), 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2015.11.006

Saganuwan, S. A. (2014). EHMTI-0206. Nigerian plants that are used for treatment of headache and migraine. 4th European Headache and Migraine Trust International Congress, EHMTIC 2014 Copenhagen Denmark, 15(Suppl 1), G33. https://doi.org/10.1186/1129-2377-15-S1-G33

Sun, D. (2016). Traditional chinese medicine for treating iron deficiency anemia due to weakness of the spleen and the stomach and preparation method [Machine Translation]. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing.

Trevisi, P., Miller, B., Patel, D., Bolognesi, A., Bortolotti, M., & Bosi, P. (2017). Two different in vitro tests confirm the blocking activity of D-galactose lectins on the adhesion of Escherichia coli F4 to pig brush border receptors. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 16(1), 101–107. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2016.1260499

Vaglica, V., Sajeva, M., Noel McGough, H., Hutchison, D., Russo, C., Gordon, A. D., … Smith, M. J. (2017). Monitoring internet trade to inform species conservation actions. Endangered Species Research, 32(1), 223–235. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00803

Varadharajaperumal, P., Subramanian, B., & Santhanam, A. (2017). Biopolymer mediated nanoparticles synthesized from Adenia hondala for enhanced tamoxifen drug delivery in breast cancer cell line. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.1088/2043-6254/aa7253

Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Wu, G., Feng, B., Yoell, S., Yu, Z., … Xu, J. (2012). Evidence against Barium in the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Yunnan, China. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(24), 8834–8835. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01798-12

 

 

Acanthospermum hispidum

 Source:  Wikimedia

Source: Wikimedia

NAME: Acanthospermum hispidum

FAMILY: Compositae

COMMON NAMES: Starburr, bristly starburr, goathead, slingshot weed

LOCAL NAMES: Dangunro-gogoro , kaashinyaawo

USEFUL PART(s): Leaves, whole plant

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Venezuela
  • Brazil
  • Ghana
  • Benin
  • Colombia
  • Peru
  • Nigeria
  • Uganda

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

 Acanthospermum hispidum medicinal uses include:       

  • Yellow Fever
  • Tuberculosis
  • Stomach disorder
  • Cough
  • Purgative
  • Rheumatism     
  • Migraine

OTHER IMPACT

  • Toxic to livestock
  • Thorny fruits of this weed can cause injury to man and animals.
 Source:  Wikimedia

Source: Wikimedia

FURTHER READINGS

Araújo , L. B. D. C., Silva, S. L., Galvão, M. A. M., Ferreira, M. R. A., Araújo, E. L., Randau, K. P., & Soares, L. A. L. (2013). Total phytosterol content in drug materials and extracts from roots of Acanthospermum hispidum by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 23(5), 736–742. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013000500004

Chakraborty, A. K., Gaikwad, A. V., & Singh, K. B. (2012). Phytopharmacological review on Acanthospermum Hispidum. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2(1), 144–148.

De Araújo, E. L., Randau, K. P., Sena-Filho, J. G., Mendonça Pimentel, R. M., & Xavier, H. S. (2008). Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae): Perspectives for a phytotherapeutic product. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2008000500024

Fleischer, T. C., Ameade, E. P. K., & Sawer, I. K. (2003). Antimicrobial activity of the leaves and flowering tops of Acanthospermum hispidum. Fitoterapia, 74(1–2), 130–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00290-3

Ganfon, H., Bero, J., Tchinda, A. T., Gbaguidi, F., Gbenou, J., Moudachirou, M., … Quetin-Leclercq, J. (2012). Antiparasitic activities of two sesquiterpenic lactones isolated from Acanthospermum hispidum D.C. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141(1), 411–417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.002

Koukouikila-Koussounda, F., Abena, A. A., Nzoungani, A., Mombouli, J. V., Ouamba, J. M., Kun, J., & Ntoumi, F. (2013). In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae) and Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the Republic of Congo. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines, 10(2), 270–276.

Panizzi, A. R., & Rossi, C. E. (1991). The role of Acanthospermum hispidum in the phenology of Euschistus heros and of Nezara viridula. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 59(1), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.1991.tb01487.x

 

   

Acalypha fimbriata

copper-leaf-794451_960_720.jpg

NAME:  Acalypha fimbriata

FAMILY: Euphorbiaceae

COMMON NAMES: Acalypha, copperleaf

LOCAL NAMES: Jinwinini, kandiri

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves

GENERAL USES:  

  • It is used in making basket and as food for livestock.
  • Horticultural purpose

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • America
  • South Africa

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Acalypha fimbriata medicinal uses include:

  • Syphilis,
  • Asthma,
  • Anthelmintics
  • Ulcers
  • Rheumatism
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antifungal

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Ornamental purpose

FURTHER READINGS

Harland, D. P., & Jackson, R. R. (2002). Influence of cues from the anterior medial eyes of virtual prey on Portia fimbriata, an araneophagic jumping spider. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 205(Pt 13), 1861–1868.

Soladoye, M. O., Sonibare, M. A., & Rosanwo, T. O. (2008). Phytochemical and morphometric analysis of the genus Acalypha Linn. (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(17), 3044–3049. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2008.3044.3049

Steimel, J., Engelbrecht, C. J. B., & Harrington, T. C. (2004). Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata. Molecular Ecology Notes, 4(2), 215–218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2004.00621.x

Wilken, P. M., Steenkamp, E. T., Wingfield, M. J., de Beer, Z. W., & Wingfield, B. D. (2013). IMA Genome-F 1: Ceratocystis fimbriata: Draft nuclear genome sequence for the plant pathogen, Ceratocystis fimbriata. IMA Fungus, 4(2), 357–358. https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2013.04.02.14

Acalypha godseffiana

NAME: Acalypha godseffiana

FAMILY: Euphorbiaceae

COMMON NAMES:  Acalypha, beefsteak

LOCAL NAMES: Jinwinini

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves, twigs

GENERAL USES:  

  • Ornamental purpose
  • It can be use as hedge

GEOGRAPHY DISTRIBUTION

  • Mozambique
  • Zimbabwe
  • Zambia

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Acalypha godseffiana medicinal uses include: 

  • Skin infection
  • Antimicrobials

FURTHER READINGS

Cardiel Sanz, J. M., & Muñoz Rodríguez, P. (2012). Two new species of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) from Bolivia. Brittonia, 64(4), 363–367. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12228-012-9246-0

Gbolade, A. (2012). Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 144(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.018

Ikewuchi, J. C. (2013). Moderation of hematological and plasma biochemical indices of sub-chronic salt-loaded rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 6(1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60197-7

Ikewuchi, J. C., Onyeike, E. N., Uwakwe, A. A., & Ikewuchi, C. C. (2011). Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae) on the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 137(3), 1415–1424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.015

Ikewuchi, J. C., Uwakwe, A. A., Onyeike, E. N., & Ikewuchi, C. C. (2011). Hepatoprotective effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. EXCLI Journal, 10, 280–289.

Odigie, B. E., & Achukwu, P. U. (2014). Histopathological pattern of the liver and kidney of Rattus novergicuson prophylactic consumption of Acalypha godseffiana crude ethnolic extract. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research, 13(1), 98–109.

Seebaluck, R., Gurib-Fakim, A., & Mahomoodally, F. (2015). Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)-A review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.10.040

Abutilon mauritianum

Name:  Abutilon mauritianum

Family:  Malvaceae

COMMON NAMES: African Mallow, thutt

LOCAL NAMES: Furu, kawo

USEFUL PARTS: Leaves, root

GENERAL USES

  • The leaves and flower are edible and can be cooked as vegetables.
  • Stems can be use as chew sticks in cleaning the teeth and also to make basket .
  • Leaves are can use as bandage on wounds and as toilet paper.

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Abutilon mauritianum medicinal uses include:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Gonorrhea
  • Antipyretic
  • Cough
  • Piles

FURTHER READINGS

Jordaan, L. A., & Downs, C. T. (2012). Comparison of germination rates and fruit traits of indigenous Solanum giganteum and invasive Solanum mauritianum in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 80, 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2012.01.007

Olckers, T., & Hulley, P. E. (1991). Impoverished Insect Herbivore Faunas on the Exotic Bugweed Solanum-Mauritianum Scop Relative To Indigenous Solanum Species in Natal Kwazulu and the Transkei. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 54(1), 39–50.

Pandey, D. P., Rather, M. A., Nautiyal, D. P., & Bachheti, R. K. (2011). Phytochemical analysis of abutilon Indicum. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 3(2), 642–645.

Rajalakshmi, P. V, & Senthil, K. K. (2009). Direct Hplc Analysis of Quercetin in Exudates of Abutilon Indicum (Linn). Malvaceae. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 1(2), 80–83.

Seetharam, Y. N., Chalageri, G., & Setty, S. R. (2002). Hypoglycemic activity of Abutilon indicum leaf extracts in rats. Fitoterapia, 73(2), 156–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00015-1

Wege, C., Gotthardt, R. D., Frischmuth, T., & Jeske, H. (2000). Fulfilling Koch’s postulates for Abutilon mosaic virus. Archives of Virology, 145(10), 2217–2225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007050070052

Banso, A., & Adeyemo, S. (2006). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Abutilon mauritianum, Bacopa monnifera and Datura stramonium. Biokemistri, 18(1), 39–44

Acacia nilotica

Babool_(Acacia_nilotica)_flowers

NAME:  Acacia nilotica

FAMILY: Fabaceae

COMMON NAMES:  Acacia, Egyptian mimosa, gum arabic tree, thorn mimosa

LOCAL NAMES: Baani, booni, gabaruwa

USEFUL PART(s):  Fruits, bark, exudates

GENERAL USES:  

  • Farm animals consume the leaves and pods.
  • Twig of the tree serves as a toothbrush
  • The exudates of the tree are use for making paints, dyes and medicines.
  • The tree's wood is use for making tool handles.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Australia
  • Egypt
  • Mozambique
  • South Africa
  • Pakistan
  • India

 WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Acacia nilotica medicinal uses include:

  • Joint pain
  • Diabetes
  • Leucorrhoea
  • Anaemia
  • Burns
Babool_(Acacia_nilotica)_leaves_&_spines_at_Hodal_W_IMG_1251.jpg

 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • The infestation of the tree speed up erosion processes
  • Nutrient cycle change pattern in the soil due to the fixing of Nitrogen by the tree

FURTHER READINGS

Arts, N. (2013). Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Plant Acacia nilotica by GCMS Method. Advances in Biological Research, 7(5), 141–144. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.abr.2013.7.5.1110

Bachaya, H. A., Iqbal, Z., Khan, M. N., Sindhu, Z. ud D., & Jabbar, A. (2009). Anthelmintic activity of Ziziphus nummularia (bark) and Acacia nilotica (fruit) against Trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 123(2), 325–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.02.043

Banso, A. (2009). Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(2), 082–085.

Carter, J. O. (1994). Acacia nilotica: a tree legume out of control. In Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture (pp. 338–351).

Kriticos, D. J., Brown, J. R., Maywald, G. F., Radford, I. D., Nicholas, D. M., Sutherst, R. W., & Adkins, S. W. (2003). SPAnDX: A process-based population dynamics model to explore management and climate change impacts on an invasive alien plant, Acacia nilotica. Ecological Modelling, 163(3), 187–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(03)00009-7

Kriticos, D. J., Sutherst, R. W., Brown, J. R., Adkins, S. W., & Maywald, G. F. (2003). Climate change and the potential distribution of an invasive alien plant: Acacia nilotica ssp. indica in Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40(1), 111–124. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00777.x

Omara, E. A., Nada, S. A., Farrag, A. R. H., Sharaf, W. M., & El-Toumy, S. A. (2012). Therapeutic effect of Acacia nilotica pods extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in rat. Phytomedicine, 19(12), 1059–1067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2012.07.006

Walters, M., & Milton, S. J. (2003). The production, storage and viability of seeds of Acacia karroo and A. nilotica in a grassy savanna in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 41(3), 211–217. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2028.2003.00433.x

Wardill, T. J., Scott, K. D., Graham, G. C., & Zalucki, M. P. (2004). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from Acacia nilotica ssp. indica (Mimosaceae). Molecular Ecology Notes, 4(3), 361–363. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2004.00697.x

Yadav, J. P., Sharma, K. K., & Khanna, P. (1993). Effect of Acacia nilotica on mustard crop. Agroforestry Systems, 21(1), 91–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00704929

Acacia ataxacantha

 SOURCE: JMK -  Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

NAME: Acacia ataxacantha

FAMILY: Fabaceae

COMMON NAMES: Benin rope Acacia, Flame Thorn

LOCAL NAMES: Ihun, ewon-adele, sarkakiyaa, uke

USEFUL PART(s): Young leaves, Bark, Root

GENERAL USES:

  • The wood and roots serve as a weaving material for making baskets.
  • The roots are used locally to make long-stem tobacco pipes.
  • The bark can be used for making ropes.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Mauritania
  • Sudan
  • Uganda
  • Kenya
  • Namibia
  • Mozambique
Acacia_ataxacantha

WHY IS IT GREEN?

Acacia ataxacantha medicinal values include:
  • Dysentery
  • Backache
  • Abdominal pains
  • Headache

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

It forms an attractive screen and is usually used for security purposes

 

FURTHER READINGS

Aba, O. Y., Ezuruike, I.T., Ayo, R.G., Habila, J. D1and Ndukwe, G. I. (2015). Isolation , antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of α -amyrenol from the root extract of Acacia ataxacantha DC. Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy, 4(2), 124–131.

Amoussa, A. M. O., Bourjot, M., Lagnika, L., Vonthron-Sénécheau, C., & Sanni, A. (2016). Acthaside: A new chromone derivative from Acacia ataxacantha and its biological activities. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1489-y

Amoussa, A. M. O., Lagnika, L., Bourjot, M., Vonthron-Senecheau, C., & Sanni, A. (2016). Triterpenoids from Acacia ataxacantha DC: Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1266-y

Amoussa, A. M. O., Lagnika, L., & Sanni, A. (2014). Acacia ataxacantha (bark): Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the extracts. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(11), 138–141. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84919342667&partnerID=tZOtx3y1

Amoussa, A. M. O., Lagnika, L., Tchatchedre, M., Laleye, A., & Sanni, A. (2015). Acute toxicity and antifungal effects of Acacia ataxacantha (Bark). International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 7(4), 661–668.

Arts, N. (2013). Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Plant Acacia nilotica by GCMS Method. Advances in Biological Research, 7(5), 141–144. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.abr.2013.7.5.1110

Bachaya, H. A., Iqbal, Z., Khan, M. N., Sindhu, Z. ud D., & Jabbar, A. (2009). Anthelmintic activity of Ziziphus nummularia (bark) and Acacia nilotica (fruit) against Trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 123(2), 325–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.02.043

Banso, A. (2009). Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(2), 082–085.

Carter, J. O. (1994). Acacia nilotica: a tree legume out of control. In Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture (pp. 338–351).

Cramer, M. D., Chimphango, S. B. M., Van Cauter, A., Waldram, M. S., & Bond, W. J. (2007). Grass competition induces N2 fixation in some species of African Acacia. Journal of Ecology, 95(5), 1123–1133. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01285.x

Cramer, M. D., Van Cauter, A., & Bond, W. J. (2010). Growth of N2-fixing African savanna Acacia species is constrained by below-ground competition with grass. Journal of Ecology, 98(1), 156–167. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01594.x

Dukku, U. H. (2003). Acacia ataxacantha: A nectar plant for honey bees between two dearth periods in the sudan savanna of northern Nigeria. Bee World. https://doi.org/10.1080/0005772X.2003.11099569

Acalypha wilkesiana

 Source:  Alchetron

Source: Alchetron

NAME:  Acalypha wilkesiana

FAMILY: Euphorbiaceae

COMMON NAMES: Starburr, copperleaf, Jacob’s coat, Fijian fire plant

LOCAL NAMES: Dangunro-gogoro , kaashinyaawo

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves,whole plant

GENERAL USES:  

  • It is usually used as hedge
  • Houseplant for ornamental purpose
  • Young shoots are edible and eaten as  cooked vegetable

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Vanuatu
  • Australia
  • Bahamas
  • Brazil
  • Kenya
  • Nigeria
  • Uganda
  • Vietnam.

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Acalypha wilkesiana medicinal uses include:

  • Yellow Fever  
  • Tuberculosis     
  • Stomach disorder  
  • Cough      
  • Purgative     
  • Rheumatism     
  • Migraine

FURTHER READINGS

Adesina, S. K., Idowu, O., Ogundaini, A. O., Oladimeji, H., Olugbade, T. A., Onawunmi, G. O., & Pais, M. (2000). Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana and Acalypha hispida. Phytotherapy Research, 14(5), 371–374. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<371::AID-PTR625>3.3.CO;2-6

Akpomie, O. O., & Olorungbon, S. (2011). Antimicrobial screening of Terminalia avicennoides and Acalypha wilkesiana. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(2), 180–182. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2011/10Jan/Akpomie and Olorungbon.pdf%5Cnhttp://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=cagh&AN=20113054217%5Cnhttp://oxfordsfx.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/oxford?sid=OVID:caghdb&id=pmid:&id=doi:&i

Anokwuru, C. P., Sinisi, A., Samie, A., & Taglialatela-Scafati, O. (2015). Antibacterial and antioxidant constituents of Acalypha wilkesiana. Natural Product Research, 29(12), 1180–1183. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.983105

Awe, F. A., Giwa-Ajeniya, A. O., Akinyemi, A. A., & Ezeri, G. N. O. (2013). Phytochemical Analysis of Acalypha Wilkesiana , Leucaena Leucocephala , Pepperomia Pellucida And Sena Alata Leaves. The International Journal of Engineering And Science, 2(9), 41–44. Retrieved from http://www.theijes.com/papers/v2-i9/Part.2/F0292041044.pdf

Ikewuchi, J. C. (2013). Moderation of hematological and plasma biochemical indices of sub-chronic salt-loaded rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 6(1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60197-7

Ikewuchi, J. C., Anyadiegwu, A., Ugono, E. Y., & Okungbowa, S. O. (2008). Effect of Acalypha wilkesiana Muell Arg on plasma sodium and potassium concentration of normal rabbits. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(1), 130–132.

Ikewuchi, J. C., Onyeike, E. N., Uwakwe, A. A., & Ikewuchi, C. C. (2011). Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae) on the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 137(3), 1415–1424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.015

Ikewuchi, J. C., Uwakwe, A. A., Onyeike, E. N., & Ikewuchi, C. C. (2011). Hepatoprotective effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. EXCLI Journal, 10, 280–289.

Mahale, G., Sunanda, S., & Sunanda, R. K. (2003). Silk dyed with Acalypha (Acalypha wilkesiana) and its fastness. Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research, 28(1), 86–89.

Soladoye, M. O., Sonibare, M. A., & Rosanwo, T. O. (2008). Phytochemical and morphometric analysis of the genus Acalypha Linn. (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(17), 3044–3049. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2008.3044.3049

Acalypha hispida

 Source: Wikipedia

Source: Wikipedia

NAME:  Acalypha hispida

FAMILY: Euphorbiaceae

COMMON NAMES: Cat's tail, chenille plant, medusa's locks

LOCAL NAMES: Jiwene, Jinwinini

USEFUL PART(s):  Leaves, twigs

GENERAL USES:  

  • It is usually used as hedge
  • Houseplant for ornamental purpose

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Hawaii
  • the United States
  • Mexico

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Acalypha hispida medicinal uses include:

  • Skin rashes
  • Antimicrobial

OTHER IMPACT:

Toxic if eaten by animal

FURTHER READINGS

Adesina, S. K., Idowu, O., Ogundaini, A. O., Oladimeji, H., Olugbade, T. A., Onawunmi, G. O., & Pais, M. (2000). Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana and Acalypha hispida. Phytotherapy Research, 14(5), 371–374. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<371::AID-PTR625>3.3.CO;2-6

Amakura, Y., Miyake, M., Ito, H., Murakaku, S., Araki, S., Itoh, Y., … Yoshida, T. (1999). Acalyphidins M1, M2and D1, ellagitannins from Acalypha hispida. Phytochemistry, 50(4), 667–675. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00579-2

Ejechi, B. O. (2001). Wood biodeterioration control potential of Acalypha hispida leaf phenolic extract in combination with Trichoderma viride culture filtrate. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 17(6), 561–565. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012230405448

Ejechi, B. O., & Souzey, J. A. (1999). Inhibition of biodeterioration of yam tuber Dioscorea rotundata Poir in storage with phenolic extract of Acalypha hispida Burm.f. leaves. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(2), 127–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-474X(98)00038-1

Elamparithi, D., Mani, P., & Moorthy, V. (2014). Antimicrobial activity and GC-MS analysis of Ocimum tenuiflorum and Acalypha hispida extract against Streptococcus pyogenes. Malaya Journal of Biosciences, 1(4), 259–266. Retrieved from http://www.malayabiosciences.com/articles/8._Mani_et_al.-_MJB_1(4)_259-266.pdf

Iniaghe, O. M., Malomo, S. O., & Adebayo, J. O. (2009). Proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of leaves of some Acalypha species. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(3), 256–258. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.256.258

Manikanta, B., Varma, P. R., Krishna, V., Kumar, A. R., & Rathinam, K. M. S. (2014). Phytochemical evaluation of Acalypha hispida, Acalypha nervosa and Acalypha fruiticosa. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7(3), 197–199.

Odigie, B. E., & Achukwu, P. U. (2014). Histopathological pattern of the liver and kidney of Rattus novergicuson prophylactic consumption of Acalypha godseffiana crude ethnolic extract. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research, 13(1), 98–109.

Okanla, E. O., Owoyale, J. A., & Akinyanju, J. A. (1990). Trypanocidal effect of an aqueous extract of acalypha hispida leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 29(2), 233–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(90)90060-7

Reiersen, B., Kiremire, B. T., Byamukama, R., & Andersen, Ø. M. (2003). Anthocyanins acylated with gallic acid from chenille plant, Acalypha hispida. Phytochemistry, 64(4), 867–871. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00494-1

Acacia sieberiana

 Source:  Alchetron

Source: Alchetron

NAME:  Acacia sieberiana

FAMILY: Fabaceae

COMMON NAMES: Acacia, Paperbark

LOCAL NAMES: Siyi, sie, farakaya, Umkhamba, Mokgaba

USEFUL PART(s):  Bark, stem-twigs, roots, leaves, latex

GENERAL USES:  

  • Fibre from the tree’s bark is used for stringing beads.
  • The gum of the tree is used as food for livestock, adhesive, in making ink.
  • The wood is used in making furniture, tool handles.
  • Geographic Distribution
  • South Africa
  • Botswana
  • Swaziland
  • Zimbabwe
  • Namibia
Acacia_sieberiana_photo_file_204KB.jpg

WHY IS IT GREEN

Acacia sieberiana medicinal uses include:·      

  • Diarrhoea·      
  • Gonorrhoea ·      
  • Cold and Cough·      
  • Fever·      
  • Rheumatism

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT    

  • Windbreak and Shade tree·      
  • Fix Nitrogen from the air  

FURTHER READINGS

Aleper, D., Lye, K. A., & Moe, S. R. (2008). Response of Acacia sieberiana to repeated experimental burning. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 61(2), 182–187. https://doi.org/10.2111/06-179.1

Brimer, L., Christensen, S. B., Jaroszewski, J. W., & Nartey, F. (1981). Structural elucidation and partial synthesis of 3-hydroxyheterodendrin, a cyanogenic glucoside from Acacia sieberiana var. woodii. Phytochemistry, 20(9), 2221–2223. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(81)80117-3

Kibon, A., & Maina, A. H. B. (1993). Dry acacia sieberiana pods as a supplement to a low quality forage diet for growing lambs in Northern Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 25(1), 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02236887

Matekaire, T., & Maroyi, A. (2007). Thermotolerance and Osmotic Potential Studies in Germinating Seeds and Growing Seedlings of Acacia sieberiana and Acacia tortilis. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 9(2), 9. Retrieved from http://www.jsd-africa.com/Jsda/V9N2-Summer2007/ARC_Thermotolerance.pdf

Mucunguzi, P., & Oryem-Origa, H. (1996). Effects of heat and fire on the germination of Acacia sieberiana D.C. and Acacia gerrardii Benth. in Uganda. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400009275

Mugunga, C. P., & Mugumo, D. T. (2013). Acacia sieberiana Effects on Soil Properties and Plant Diversity in Songa Pastures, Rwanda. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2013, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/237525

Nartey, F., Brimer, L., & Christensen, S. B. (1981). Proacaciberin, A cyanogenic glycoside from Acacia sieberiana var. Woodii. Phytochemistry, 20(6), 1311–1314. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(81)80029-5

Sabiiti, E. N., & Wein, R. W. (1987). Fire and Acacia Seeds: A Hypothesis of Colonization Success. Journal of Ecology, 75(4), 937–946. https://doi.org/10.2307/2260305

SABIITI, E. N., & WEIN, R. W. (1988). Fire behaviour and the invasion of Acacia sieberiana into savanna grassland openings. African Journal of Ecology, 26(4), 301–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1988.tb00982.x

Zinn, A. D., Ward, D., & Kirkman, K. (2007). Inducible defences in Acacia sieberiana in response to giraffe browsing. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 24(3), 123–129. https://doi.org/10.2989/AJRFS.2007.24.3.2.295

 

 

Acacia auriculiformis

Acacia_auriculiformis

NAME:  Acacia auriculiformis

FAMILY: Fabaceae

COMMON NAMES: Earleaf acacia, auri, earpod wattle, northern black wattle

LOCAL NAMES: Kasia eleti, Maha Babul, Kondamanu

USEFUL PART(s):  Bark, wood

GENERAL USES:  

  • The wood can be use for making paper pulp, furniture, toys and tools.
  • Wood can serve as fuel for fire
  • The bark can be use as tanning material and natural dye.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Australia
  • Indonesia
  • New Guinea

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Acacia auriculiformis medicinal uses include:

  • Astringent    
  • Conjunctivitis    
  • Rheumatism
Starr_031013-8001_Acacia_auriculiformis.jpg

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Erosion control
  • Shade tree
  • Improves the Soil quality Fix Nitrogen from the air

OTHER IMPACT

  • Ornamental purpose

 

FURTHER READINGS

Galiana, A., Chaumont, J., Diem, H. G., & Dommergues, Y. R. (1990). Nitrogen-fixing potential of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium spp. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 9(3), 261–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00336237

Kabir, A., Rafiqul, A. T. M., & Kamaluddin, M. (2006). Acclimation of acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis) vegetative propagules to soil water deficits. Dendrobiology, 56, 37–43.

Marsoem, S. N., & Irawati, D. (2016). Basic properties of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis as a heating fuel. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1755). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4958551

Mihara, R., Barry, K. M., Mohammed, C. L., & Mitsunaga, T. (2005). Comparison of antifungal and antioxidant activities of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31(4), 789–804. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-005-3544-x

Mittal, A., Agarwal, R., & Gupta, S. C. (1989). In vitro development of plantlets from axillary buds of Acacia auriculiformis - a leguminous tree. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 19(1), 65–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00037777

Ng, C. H., Koh, S. C., Lee, S. L., Ng, K. K. S., Mark, A., Norwati, M., & Wickneswari, R. (2005). Isolation of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis). Molecular Ecology Notes, 5(3), 572–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.00994.x

Nguyen, N. T., Moghaieb, R. E. A., Saneoka, H., & Fujita, K. (2004). RAPD markers associated with salt tolerance in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Plant Science, 167(4), 797–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.05.016

Sedgley, M., Harbard, J., Smith, R. M. M., Wickneswari, R., & Griffin, A. R. (1992). Reproductive-biology and interspecific hybridization of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae). Australian Journal of Botany, 40(1), 37–48. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9920037

Yang, L., Liu, N., Ren, H., & Wang, J. (2009). Facilitation by two exotic Acacia: Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium as nurse plants in South China. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(8), 1786–1793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.01.033

 

 

Abrus precatorius

8338146495_1e5428d9cd_b.jpg

NAME:  Abrus precatorius

FAMILY: Fabaceae

COMMON NAMES: Crab’s eye, rosary pea, love nut, jequirity, prayer bead, country licorice

LOCAL NAMES: Oju-ologbo, omisinminsin, mesenmesen, iwere-jeje, Olorun yin-ni, otoberebere, idonzakara, Umkhokha.

USEFUL PART(s): Root, leaves, seeds

GENERAL USES: The seeds of Abrus precatorius are used as:

  • Units of measurement
  • Weapons
  • Jewelry (beads)

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • China
  • Thailand
  • Japan
  • Seychelles
  • Nigeria
  • Brazil

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Abrus precatorius medicinal uses include:

  • Colds and cough
  • Convulsion
  • Rheumatism
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Contraceptive
  • Antimicrobials
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Ulcer
  • Anaemia
  • Antidote poison

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

  • Environmental weeds
  • Strange/unusual scramblers and vines

OTHER IMPACT

The seeds are toxic to both humans and farm animals

 FURTHER READINGS

Bhardwaj, D. K., Bisht, M. S., & Mehta, C. K. (1980). Flavonoids from Abrus Precatorius. Phytochemistry, 19(9), 2040–2041. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(80)83038-X

Ghosal, S., & Dutta, S. K. (1971). Alkaloids of Abrus precatorius. Phytochemistry, 10(1), 195–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90270-X

Hata, Y., Ebrahimi, S. N., De Mieri, M., Zimmermann, S., Mokoka, T., Naidoo, D., … Hamburger, M. (2014). Antitrypanosomal isoflavan quinones from Abrus precatorius. Fitoterapia, 93, 81–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2013.12.015

Limmatvapirat, C., Sirisopanaporn, S., & Kittakoop, P. (2004). Antitubercular and antiplasmodial constituents of Abrus precatorius. Planta Medica, 70(3), 276–278. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-818924

Manasi, N., Pimpalgaonkar, P. B., & Laddha, K. S. (2011). Studies on sodhana prakriya of gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10(4), 693–696.

Nwodo, O. F. C. (1991). Studies on Abrus precatorius seeds. I: Uterotonic activity of seed oil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 31(3), 391–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(91)90023-7

Olsnes, S. (1978). Toxic and Nontoxic Lectins from Abrus precatorius. Methods in Enzymology, 50(C), 323–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(78)50036-0

Osmeli, D., Kimia, B., Kedokteran, F., & Yarsi, U. (2009). KANDUNGAN SENYAWA KIMIA , UJI TOKSISITAS ( Brine Shrimp Lethality Test ) DAN ANTIOKSIDAN ( 1 , 1-diphenyl-2-pikrilhydrazyl ) DARI EKSTRAK DAUN SAGA ( Abrus precatorius L .). Macara Sains, 13(1), 50–54.

Singh, R. B., & Shelley. (2007). Polysaccharide structure of degraded glucomannan from Abrus precatorius Linn, seeds. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(2 SUPPL.), 461–464.

Subba Reddy, V. V., & Sirsi, M. (1969). Effect of Abrus precatorius L. on Experimental Tumors. Cancer Research, 29(7), 1447–1451.

Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra)

green-Abelmoschus esculentus.jpg

GENERAL INFORMATION

NAME: Abelmoschus esculentus L., 1753

FAMILY: Malvaceae

LOCAL NAMES: Ila, okweje, kubewa

COMMON NAMES: Okra, lady's finger

USEFUL PART(s): Fruit, seeds

WHY IS IT GREEN? 

Abelmoschus esculentus use includes: 

  • Fevers

  • Gonorrhoea

  • Dysentery

  • Catarrhal infections

  • Emollient

  • Antispasmodic

  • Tonic


VIDEOS


FURTHER READINGS

Doreddula, S.K., Bonam, S.R., Gaddam, D.P., Desu, B.S.R., Ramarao, N., Pandy, V., 2014. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice. Sci. World J. 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/519848

Jayaseelan, C., Ramkumar, R., Rahuman, A.A., Perumal, P., 2013. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Abelmoschus esculentus and its antifungal activity. Ind. Crops Prod. 45, 423–429. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.12.019

Kumar, D.S., Tony, D.E., Kumar,  a P., Kumar, K.A., Rao, D.B.S., Nadendla, R., 2013. a Review on : Abelmoschus Esculentus ( Okra ). Int. Res. J. Pharm. appied Sci. 3, 129–132.

Molfetta, I., Ceccarini, L., Macchia, M., Flamini, G., Cioni, P.L., 2013. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and Abelmoschus moschatus Medik: Seeds production and analysis of the volatile compounds. Food Chem. 141, 34–40. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.030

Mollick, M.M.R., Rana, D., Dash, S.K., Chattopadhyay, S., Bhowmick, B., Maity, D., Mondal, D., Pattanayak, S., Roy, S., Chakraborty, M., Chattopadhyay, D., 2015. Studies on green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) pulp extract having anticancer (in vitro) and antimicrobial applications. Arab. J. Chem. doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.04.033

Doreddula, S.K., Bonam, S.R., Gaddam, D.P., Desu, B.S.R., Ramarao, N., Pandy, V., 2014. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice. Sci. World J. 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/519848

Jayaseelan, C., Ramkumar, R., Rahuman, A.A., Perumal, P., 2013. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Abelmoschus esculentus and its antifungal activity. Ind. Crops Prod. 45, 423–429. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.12.019

Kumar, D.S., Tony, D.E., Kumar,  a P., Kumar, K.A., Rao, D.B.S., Nadendla, R., 2013. a Review on : Abelmoschus Esculentus ( Okra ). Int. Res. J. Pharm. appied Sci. 3, 129–132.

Molfetta, I., Ceccarini, L., Macchia, M., Flamini, G., Cioni, P.L., 2013. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and Abelmoschus moschatus Medik: Seeds production and analysis of the volatile compounds. Food Chem. 141, 34–40. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.030

Mollick, M.M.R., Rana, D., Dash, S.K., Chattopadhyay, S., Bhowmick, B., Maity, D., Mondal, D., Pattanayak, S., Roy, S., Chakraborty, M., Chattopadhyay, D., 2015. Studies on green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) pulp extract having anticancer (in vitro) and antimicrobial applications. Arab. J. Chem. doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.04.033